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Botulinum Toxin Injections

Botulinum Toxin Injections.

Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), the most toxic substance known, is produced by the spore-forming bacterium Clostridium botulinum and, in rare cases, also by some strains of Clostridium butyricum and Clostridium baratii.

The standard procedure for definitive detection of BoNT-producing clostridia is a culture method combined with neurotoxin detection using a standard mouse bioassay (SMB). The SMB is highly sensitive and specific, but it is expensive and time-consuming and there are ethical concerns due to use of laboratory animals. PCR provides a rapid alternative for initial screening for BoNT-producing clostridia. In this study, a previously described multiplex PCR assay was modified to detect all type A, B, E, and F neurotoxin genes in isolated strains and in clinical, food, environmental samples.

Botulinum for sale

This assay includes an internal amplification control. The effectiveness of the multiplex PCR method for detecting clostridia possessing type A, B, E, and F neurotoxin genes was evaluated by direct comparison with the SMB. This method showed 100% inclusivity and 100% exclusivity when 182 BoNT-producing clostridia and 21 other bacterial strains were used. The relative accuracy of the multiplex PCR and SMB was evaluated using 532 clinical, food, and environmental samples and was estimated to be 99.2%.

The multiplex PCR was also used to investigate 110 freshly collected food and environmental samples, and 4 of the 110 samples (3.6%) were positive for BoNT-encoding genes.

Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most toxic agents known, and as little as 30 ng neurotoxin is potentially lethal to humans . These toxins are responsible for botulism, a disease characterized by flaccid paralysis. Seven antigenically distinct BoNTs are known (types A to G), and BoNT types A, B, E, and F are the principal types associated with human botulism . Significant sequence diversity and antigenically variable subtypes have recently been reported for the type A, B, and E neurotoxin genes .

Apart from the species Clostridium botulinum, which itself consists of four phylogenetically distinct groups of organisms, some strains of other clostridia, namely Clostridium butyricum and Clostridium baratii, are also known to produce BoNTs . Also, strains that produce two toxins and strains carrying silent toxin genes have been reported lation and identification cannot depend solely on biochemical characteristics . Indeed, the standard culture methods take into consideration only C. botulinum and not C. baratii and C. butyricum, and identification and confirmation require detection of BoNT by a standard mouse bioassay (SMB) . The SMB is highly sensitive and specific but also expensive, time-consuming, and undesirable because of the use of experimental animals. Detection of neurotoxin gene fragments by PCR is a rapid alternative method for detection and typing of BoNT-producing clostridia . Different PCR methods have been described for detecting neurotoxin type A-, B-, E-, and F-producing clostridia .


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